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Test for Dyslexia: 37 Common Traits
Ronald D. Davis ©1992
Most dyslexics will exhibit about 10 of the following traits and behaviors. These characteristics can vary from day-to-day or minute-to-minute. The most consistent thing about dyslexics is their inconsistency.
- Appears bright, highly intelligent, and articulate but unable to read, write, or spell at grade level.
- Labelled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, “not trying hard enough,” or “behavior problem.”
- Isn’t “behind enough” or “bad enough” to be helped in the school setting.
- High in IQ, yet may not test well academically; tests well orally, but not written.
- Feels dumb; has poor self-esteem; hides or covers up weaknesses with ingenious compensatory strategies; easily frustrated and emotional about school reading or testing.
- Talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, sales, business, designing, building, or engineering.
- Seems to “Zone out” or daydream often; gets lost easily or loses track of time.
- Difficulty sustaining attention; seems “hyper” or “daydreamer.”
- Learns best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation, and visual aids.
Vision, Reading, and Spelling:
- Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while reading.
- Confused by letters, numbers, words, sequences, or verbal explanations.
- Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals in letters, numbers and/or words.
- Complains of feeling or seeing non-existent movement while reading, writing, or copying.
- Seems to have difficulty with vision, yet eye exams don’t reveal a problem.
- Extremely keen sighted and observant, or lacks depth perception and peripheral vision.
- Reads and rereads with little comprehension.
- Spells phonetically and inconsistently.
Hearing and Speech:
- Has extended hearing; hears things not said or apparent to others; easily distracted by sounds.
- Difficulty putting thoughts into words; speaks in halting phrases; leaves sentences incomplete; stutters under stress; mispronounces long words, or transposes phrases, words, and syllables when speaking.
Writing and Motor Skills:
- Trouble with writing or copying; pencil grip is unusual; handwriting varies or is illegible.
- Clumsy, uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports; difficulties with fine and/or gross motor skills and tasks; prone to motion-sickness.
- Can be ambidextrous, and often confuses left/right, over/under.
Math and Time Management:
- Has difficulty telling time, managing time, learning sequenced information or tasks, or being on time.
- Computing math shows dependence on finger counting and other tricks; knows answers, but can’t do it on paper.
- Can count, but has difficulty counting objects and dealing with money.
- Can do arithmetic, but fails word problems; cannot grasp algebra or higher math.
Memory and Cognition:
- Excellent long-term memory for experiences, locations, and faces.
- Poor memory for sequences, facts and information that has not been experienced.
- Thinks primarily with images and feeling, not sounds or words (little internal dialogue).
Behavior, Health, Development, and Personality:
- Extremely disorderly or compulsively orderly.
- Can be class clown, trouble-maker, or too quiet.
- Had unusually early or late developmental stages (talking, crawling, walking, tying shoes).
- Prone to ear infections; sensitive to foods, additives, and chemical products.
- Can be an extra deep or light sleeper; bedwetting beyond appropriate age.
- Unusually high or low tolerance for pain.
- Strong sense of justice; emotionally sensitive; strives for perfection.
- Mistakes and symptoms increase dramatically with confusion, time pressure, emotional stress, or poor health.
Davis, Ronald Dell. (1992) 37 Common Characteristics of Dyslexia. Retrieved June 5, 2023 from Davis Dyslexia Association International. Dyslexia the Gift website: https://www.dyslexia.com/?p=254.
Common Characteristics of Adult Dyslexia
Most adult dyslexics will exhibit at least 10 of the following traits and behaviors. These characteristics are often inconsistent, and may vary depending upon the day or situation. Career: Employed in job/position that will hide difficulties...
Davis Program Average Reading Gains
Statistics from Rocky Point Academy Davis Facilitators Lawrence and Stacey Smith have assembled data showing reading level gains for more than 360 clients who completed the Davis Dyslexia Correction® program at their center, Rocky Point Academy , in Calgary, Canada.
Looking for a solution? Start here.The Gift of Dyslexia explains why dyslexia happens and what you can do about it.
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Full Davis programs are currently available online from many Davis Facilitators. For more information, see Online Program Delivery (Pilot Program).
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Personally I have a lot of these symptoms, but I feel like my parenst are going to not believe me if I say I wanna get tested.
Now I am turning 23 this January but I am still having trouble with spelling. I kind of know what are the letters that will go to spell the word but don’t know the sequence. According to my mother I had ear pain when I was baby and walk and talk earlier as compare to my sibling. I am deep sleeper and wet my bed until I was in my 4th or 5th grade. My eye sight is also bad. And I am left handed turned right handed for writing. I used to struggle with gap between words. In national language I am not a good reader. In English it is difficult for me to read New words which my friends could easily read. And my hand writing is horrible. I am intervort who doesn’t talk much but loves to listen to short stories and collect quotes. I enjoy my company with kids more than any other. Most of the time I would be sleeping or watching television. As portrait in movies letters does not jumps or dance before my eyes.I just wanted to know am I okay.
If not what should I do.
Thank you for the article and making me know better about myself.
I am sorry i left some of the points.
I have motion sickness if speed of car is more than 30 or 40 per km.
I believe I have long term memory because I tends to know more about the movies that we watch during childhood or long time ago.
Sometimes I can easily memorize numbers and date but some are very confusing despite several try. I had to make link to remember one date or number with other.
I AM A 63 YR OLD MAN AND I WOULD LIKE TO SEE ,WITH YOUR HELP HOW I CAN FIX MY DYSLEXIA
You can find a Davis Facilitator near you at https://www.davismethod.org/ —
or use the form at https://www.dyslexia.com/contact/referral-request/ to request a referral.
Hi I’m 14 years old and I have problems with spelling, writing and pronunciations of words, but I’m doing really good in school. When I was younger I was but into a special class for a few years to help with my reading and maybe writing. I do exhibit quite a bit of symptoms like I have motion sickness, I confuse my left from my right, I have problems pronouncing words I’ve never heard and I’m not that good at spelling, etc, but i think I’m a good reader I own many books more comics than novel but I still own a lot. I don’t know if I should talk to someone about it because it’s not exactly affecting my school work (not that I know of). I just wanted to ask for some advice.
Do you want help with the problems you listed (spelling, writing, word pronunciations)? Then you might talk to your parents. Since you enjoy reading, you might want to read the book The Gift of Dyslexia –you might be able to find it in a local library – that might give you a better understanding of how you think and learn.
Thank you, I appreciate the advice.
I have an adopted daughter who I’m really concerned about. Thankfully, i recently came across dyslexia.
She is 14years, fails most subjects in school, can’t cope with analogue clock, multiplication tables, hearing things not said, doesn’t know her left from right, daydreams and misses a lot of information even within a very short period
What courses/career path suits?
It’s not too late for your daughter to get help with her problems. Have you considered consulting with a Davis Facilitator? That’s the first step toward gaining better understanding and control.
I know a young lady who just turned 18 earlier this year, known her all her life. When she was school, she struggled in school , got held back. And she had not enrolled in school for senior year came up any excuses of why she had not applied for job or to enroll in school this year she had just told me she is dyslexic. I did t know this her mother never told me of this, it makes me wonder if the mother herself might be dyslexic or someone he daughter’ s other family member like her bio father may be the one passed down to her.
I’m only 13 years old and I see a decent amount of the symptoms are close to what I have been experiencing but I’m not sure if I should look into it more
Anjali, if you feel that your symptoms are making things harder for you in school, then you should discuss your concerns with a parent, teacher, or other trusted adult in your life. That’s the first step to getting help.
Ok thank you
I am 17 Almost 18 and going to university next year. Dyslexia runs in my moms side of the family with 2 extreme cases. I’ve had suspisions for as long as i can remember. When i was younger i was putting into the special reading group for 3 years because i could barley read and write (elemetary school). but even in highscchool these problems havent gone away. i cannot read outloud, it sometimes takes me 4 times just to get a short sentace right. i always get my b,d,p and qs mixed up, even if i know its a b i will still write p,q or d. I’ve aslo noticed when someone asks me to recap what they’ve just said i cannot remember anything. I also have trouble fining the words i need when talking. Another struggle i have is writting down blanks from powerpoints, the class always moves on before i finish it. Ihave asked my school guidance about it but because my grades are too good they wont do anything. When i was younger i would frequently cry and freakout because of reading and other homework, i still get that feeling but dont lash out as much. Other people have mentioned chance of autism due to my sensory issues, like being touched (hugs, feet, neck) and ear and sound issues(not being able to wear headphones or ill freak out), also my special intersets with animals and plants. another thing is key words that can be triggered by other people saying something. I am honestly just asking for someones opinion becasue i know there is something different with me, but no one will do anything because my grades are good. keep in mind that my twin sister(ferternal) got diagnosied less than a year ago with adhd.
Naomi, everything that you describe is consistent with dyslexia. If you are doing well in school, you might not qualify for extra services — but if you feel that it is a struggle for you and you would like help, then that is available. If you are able to read well now, you can learn more about what we do from the book, The Gift of Dyslexia. The book is also available in audio format if you prefer to listen rather than read.
My 13 year old has struggled for years. He exhibits a great many of these traits. Everytime the school screens him and evaluates for Sp. Ed he barely tests out, and I am told his screeners for dyslexia do not show anything. However, I know that the screeners do not screen for all forms of dyslexia. How do I go about having him tested independently?
You can find information about private testing here:
What kind of professional is qualified to diagnose dyslexia?? https://www.dyslexia.com/question/who-can-diagnose/
When is a formal diagnosis necessary? https://www.dyslexia.com/question/when-is-diagnosis-necessary/
However, keep in mind that a formal diagnosis does not mean that the school will provide effective help.
Dyslexia is a difference in thinking and learning that occurs along a spectrum, and if your son “barely tests out” it means that he is probably dyslexic, but not behind enough to qualify for services. You might find it helpful to talk with a Davis Facilitator about your son’s struggles — a formal diagnosis is not required, and Facilitators can help the vast majority of individuals who come to them. You will find full listings of Davis Facilitators here: https://www.davismethod.org/
My son is 13 and we had him assessed by a psychologist that specifically does all battery of testing. It was 2 sessions of about 3 hours each. It was crazy all the results and FOR SURE diagnosis of Dyslexia. We are so grateful we did it. It’s expensive but now we have the answers we need to get him the support he needs. Good Luck.
Add on to my last comment she has trouble spelling after 2nd grade it took her almost two years to meet the expectation for 4th grade she has trouble with math can tell the time fells disappointed in herself when she can’t finish or turn in assignments and she may have ADHD
Are you looking for help for your daughter now? Do you have specific questions about how a Davis program might help her?
My 11-12 year old has most of these she has a 6.9 – 7 reading level loves reading has read harry Potter and Percy Jackson series is a deep sleeper can tie shoes she can read well doesn’t have motion sickness at all
Hi there! I am someone who has dyslexia and like your child I love to read. I actually didn’t learn to read until I was 8 but was reading on a college level by 12. This is because I do not read phonetically but sight read. I still am really bad at spelling, mispronounce words I haven’t heard before, and I loose my words when I speak a lot. The thing that has helped me the most in my life is to realize that I am an intelligent person with a brain that works differently so I have to do something’s differently then others. I also learned to surround myself with people who love me for me and don’t make fun of the things that I can’t help (like my spelling). Always keep in mind that is dyslexics are often very intelligent so we are our own biggest enemy. The best thing you can do for your child is help them see how awesome they are so that they have the confidence to face their weaknesses in life with patience with themselves.
This is me..I suffered all my early years.
My 11 year old struggles in school. She’s articulate verbally and can watch nature programmes plus recite everything. Basically obsessed with nature. However, when she reads she can put the second word first or put a word not on the paper first. She writes phonetically and has problems with her times tables. Remembering them. She confuses her left and right. Walks with a bounce. Can’t tell the time. But can tie shoe laces. She gets frustrated and disruptive. Won’t eat in school. Hates to break school work rules. She can’t manage that at all. Meltdowns if she doesn’t follow them.
Chantelle, these are all very common symptoms of dyslexia. Are you looking for ways to help your daughter?
Yes I am
The methods we use are explained in the book, The Gift of Dyslexia. So reading the book is a good first step.