Authors: Tami Katzir, YoungSuk Kim, Maryanne Wolf, Becky Kennedy, Maureen Lovett & Robin Morris.

Article: The Relationship of Spelling Recognition, RAN, and Phonological Awareness to Reading Skills in Older Poor Readers and Younger Reading-Matched Controls.

Publication: Reading and Writing (Springer). 19, pages 845–872 2006 | DOI: 10.1007/s11145-006-9013-2

[Full Text]


The role of spelling recognition was examined in word reading skills and reading comprehension for dyslexic and nondyslexic children. Dyslexic and nondyslexic children were matched on their raw word reading proficiency. Relationships between spelling recognition and the following were examined for both groups of children: verbal ability, working memory, phonological measures, rapid naming, word reading, and reading comprehension. Children’s performance in spelling recognition was significantly associated with their skills in word reading and reading comprehension regardless of their reading disability status. Furthermore, spelling recognition contributed significant variance to reading comprehension for both dyslexic and nondyslexic children after the effects of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and word reading proficiency had been accounted for. The results support the role of spelling recognition in reading development for both groups of children and they are discussed using a componential reading fluency framework.

Tagged as: flluency, orthographic processing, and spelling


Katzir, T., Kim, Y., Wolf, M. et al. The Relationship of Spelling Recognition, RAN, and Phonological Awareness to Reading Skills in Older Poor Readers and Younger Reading-Matched Controls. Read Writ 19, 845–872 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-006-9013-2

Excerpts from Full Text / Notes:
The results from the present study confirm and expand our knowledge on the complex relationship of phonological and orthographic processes to reading: Phonological processing is critical for word reading and reading comprehension while there is an additional significant relationship between spelling recognition and reading skills at the word, and connected reading level for both nondyslexic and dyslexic children beyond phonological processing.
The main focus of the study was to examine the relationship between spelling recognition and reading skills, particularly reading comprehension, for average readers and dyslexic readers. The overall results suggest convergent evidence for the potential importance of orthographic processing in  reading development. It also indicates that the relationship between spelling recognition and reading skills appears to be similar for both average readers and dyslexic readers.
Moreover, the results demonstrated that receptive spelling recognition was significantly associated with reading comprehension, even beyond phonological processing, symbol level reading skilks, and word reading accuracy and speed. Spelling recognition may be conceptualized as a higher order integration task. The task requires mapping phonological information to visual representation, searching and selecting a permissible letter string and matching it to a memorized word template
Children with and without dyslexia will benefit from instruction with an emphasis on orthographic knowledge and strategies.

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