Authors: Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański.
Publication: Annals of Dyslexia (Springer). 67(3): 318–332 2017 | DOI: 10.1007/s11881-017-0146-6
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces—assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group. The obtained results suggest differences of memory functioning in terms of verbatim and gist trace retrieval between people with and without dyslexia on specific, elementary cognitive processes postulated by the fuzzy-trace theory. These can indicate new approaches in the education of persons with developmental dyslexia, focused on specific impairments and the strengths of their memory functioning.
Obidziński, M., & Nieznański, M. (2017). False memory for orthographically versus semantically similar words in adolescents with dyslexia: a fuzzy-trace theory perspective. Annals of dyslexia, 67(3), 318–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-017-0146-6
In the context of education, obtained result could suggest possible approaches in methods of teaching of adolescence with dyslexia. Firstly, teachers should remember about deficits in recollection rejection process (thus, impairments of verbatim memory) that affect pupils with dyslexia. This kind of impairment could lead to errors not only in reading but also spelling and even memory of other type, precise information—if deficits are not narrowed to verbal memory. Because of that, teachers should based their evaluations of pupils’ works more on the gist information, and less on memory of exact information (like date in history, or remembering of names and text in the language classes).