Authors: Timothy Shanahan.

Article: A Review of the Evidence on Tier 1 Instruction for Readers With Dyslexia.

Publication: Reading Research Quarterly (Wiley). First published online: 01 August 2021 2021 | DOI: 10.1002/rrq.438


In this article, I provide an examination of research evidence concerning the effects of classroom instruction (Tier 1) for students with dyslexia and other reading problems. I discuss the suitability and limitations of different types of research evidence that may be used to determine how best to support the learning of these students in the classroom (e.g., studies of the effects of classroom instruction on average reading achievement, studies of special interventions for students with reading problems). I then examine research on the impact on learning of amount of classroom instruction, the curriculum or content of classroom instruction, and the quality of classroom instruction. Because the preponderance of research has focused on what needs to be taught to students to improve their reading achievement, in that portion of the review, I focus on the results of 32 meta-analyses rather than individual studies. These meta-analyses addressed a wide range of topics, including phonemic awareness, decoding, oral reading fluency, reading comprehension strategies, writing, and various aspects of language and text structure. Finally, I provide a best estimate of beneficial approaches to classroom instruction for students with dyslexia and identify gaps and limitations in this evidentiary base.

Tagged as: classroom instruction and evidence-based


Shanahan, T. (2021). A Review of the Evidence on Tier 1 Instruction for Readers With Dyslexia. Read Res Q, 00( 00), 1– 17.

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