Authors: Dean P. Wybrow & J. Richard Hanley.
Publication: Cognitive Neuropsychology (Taylor and Francis). 32:1, 1-13 2015 | DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2014.998185
Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Dean P. Wybrow & J. Richard Hanley (2015) Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed, Cognitive Neuropsychology, 32:1, 1-13