A Dyslexic Child in the Classroom

A Guide for Teachers and Parents

Patricia Hodge, Dip.spld (dyslexia) © 2000

Image by Sophia via stock.xchngProficient reading is an essential tool for learning a large part of the subject matter taught at school. With an ever increasing emphasis on education and literacy, more and more children and adults are needing help in learning to read, spell, express their thoughts on paper and acquire adequate use of grammar.

A dyslexic child who finds the acquisition of these literacy skills difficult can also suffer a lot of anguish and trauma when they may feel mentally abused by their peers within the school environment, because they have a learning difficulty. Much can be done to alleviate this by integrating the child into the class environment (which is predominantly a learning environment) where he/she can feel comfortable and develop confidence and self esteem.

Class teachers may be particularly confused by the student whose consistent underachievement seems due to what may look like carelessness or lack of effort.

These children can be made to feel very different from their peers simply because they may be unable to follow simple instructions, which for others seem easy. It is a class teacher’s responsibility to provide an atmosphere conducive to learning for all pupils within their class.

Class teachers need to have an understanding of the problems that the dyslexic child may have within the classroom situation. Hopefully, with this knowledge, a great deal of misunderstanding of a child’s behaviour can be prevented. In a positive and encouraging environment, a dyslexic child will experience the feeling of success and self-value.

Of particular importance is an understanding of the problems that poor auditory short term memory can cause, in terms of retaining input from the teacher.

Examples of poor auditory short term memory can be a difficulty in remembering the sounds in spoken words long enough to match these, in sequence, with letters for spelling. Often children with poor auditory short term memory cannot remember even a short list of instructions.

The following items should provide useful guidelines for teachers and parents to follow and support :


In the class
  • Of value to all children in the class is an outline of what is going to be taught in the lesson, ending the lesson with a resume of what has been taught. In this way information is more likely to go from short term memory to long term memory.
  • When homework is set, it is important to check that the child correctly writes down exactly what is required. Try to ensure that the appropriate worksheets and books are with the child to take home.
  • In the front of the pupils’ homework book get them to write down the telephone numbers of a couple of friends. Then, if there is any doubt over homework, they can ring up and check, rather than worry or spend time doing the wrong work.
  • Make sure that messages and day to day classroom activities are written down, and never sent verbally. i.e. music, P. E. swimming etc.
  • Make a daily check list for the pupil to refer to each evening. Encourage a daily routine to help develop the child’s own self-reliance and responsibilities.
  • Encourage good organizational skills by the use of folders and dividers to keep work easily accessible and in an orderly fashion.
  • Break tasks down into small easily remembered pieces of information.
  • If visual memory is poor, copying must be kept to a minimum. Notes or handouts are far more useful.
  • Seat the child fairly near the class teacher so that the teacher is available to help if necessary, or he can be supported by a well-motivated and sympathetic classmate.
Copying from the blackboard
  • Use different colour chalks for each line if there is a lot of written information on the board, or underline every second line with a different coloured chalk.
  • Ensure that the writing is well spaced.
  • Leave the writing on the blackboard long enough to ensure the child doesn’t rush, or that the work is not erased from the board before the child has finished copying.
  • A structured reading scheme that involves repetition and introduces new words slowly is extremely important. This allows the child to develop confidence and self esteem when reading.
  • Don’t ask pupils to read a book at a level beyond their current skills, this will instantly demotivate them. Motivation is far better when demands are not too high, and the child can actually enjoy the book. If he has to labour over every word he will forget the meaning of what he is reading.
  • Save the dyslexic child the ordeal of having to ‘read aloud in class’. Reserve this for a quiet time with the class teacher. Alternatively, perhaps give the child advanced time to read pre-selected reading material, to be practiced at home the day before. This will help ensure that the child is seen to be able to read out loud, along with other children
  • Real books should also be available for paired reading with an adult, which will often generate enthusiasm for books. Story tapes can be of great benefit for the enjoyment and enhancement of vocabulary. No child should be denied the pleasure of gaining access to the meaning of print even if he cannot decode it fully.
  • Remember reading should be fun.
  • Many of the normal classroom techniques used to teach spellings do not help the dyslexic child. All pupils in the class can benefit from structured and systematic exposure to rules and patterns that underpin a language.
  • Spelling rules can be given to the whole class. Words for class spelling tests are often topic based rather than grouped for structure. If there are one or two dyslexics in the class, a short list of structure-based words for their weekly spelling test, will be far more helpful than random words. Three or four irregular words can be included each week, eventually this should be seen to improve their free-writing skills.
  • All children should be encouraged to proof read, which can be useful for initial correction of spellings. Dyslexics seem to be unable to correct their spellings spontaneously as they write, but they can be trained to look out for errors that are particular to them.
  • Remember, poor spelling is not an indication of low intelligence.
  • Maths has its own language, and this can be the root of many problems. Whilst some dyslexic students are good at maths, it has been estimated that around 90% of dyslexic children have problems in at least some areas of maths. General mathematical terminology words need to be clearly understood before they can be used in calculations, e.g. add, plus, sum of, increase and total, all describe a single mathematical process. Other related difficulties could be with visual/perceptual skills, directional confusion, sequencing, word skills and memory. Dyslexic students may have special difficulties with aspects of maths that require many steps or place a heavy load on the short-term memory, e.g. long division or algebra.
  • The value of learning the skills of estimation cannot be too strongly stressed for the dyslexic child. Use and encourage the use of estimation. The child should be taught to form the habit of checking his answers against the question when he has finished the calculation, i.e. is the answer possible, sensible or ludicrous?
  • When using mental arithmetic allow the dyslexic child to jot down the key number and the appropriate mathematical sign from the question.
  • Encourage pupils to verbalize and to talk their way through each step of the problem. Many children find this very helpful.
  • Teach the pupil how to use the times table square and encourage him to say his workings out as he uses it.
  • Encourage a dyslexic child to use a calculator. Make sure he fully understand how to use it. Ensure that he has been taught to estimate to check his calculations. This is a way of ‘proof reading’ what he does.
  • Put key words on a card index system or on the inside cover of the pupils maths book so it can be used for reference and revision.
  • Rehearse mathematical vocabulary constantly, using multi sensory/kinesthetic methods.
  • Put the decimal point in red ink. It helps visual perception with the dyslexic child.
  • Reasons for poor handwriting at any age can be poor motor control, tension, badly formed letters, speed etc. A cursive joined style is most helpful to children with dyslexic problems. Encourage the children to study their writing and be self-critical. Get them to decide for themselves where faults lie and what improvements can be made, so that no resentment is built up at yet another person complaining about their written work.
  • Discuss the advantages of good handwriting and the goals to be achieved with the class. Analyze common faults in writing, by writing a few well chosen words on the board for class comment.
  • Make sure a small reference chart is available to serve as a constant reminder for the cursive script in upper and lower case.
  • If handwriting practice is needed it is essential to use words that present no problem to the dyslexic child in terms of meaning or spelling.
  • Improvement in handwriting skills can improve self confidence, which in turn reflects favorably throughout a pupil’s work.
  • Credit for effort as well as achievement are both essential. This gives the pupil a better chance of getting a balanced mark. Creative writing should be marked on context.
  • Spelling mistakes pinpointed should be those appropriate to the child’s level of spelling. Marking should be done in pencil and have positive comments.
  • Try not to use red pens to mark the dyslexic child’s work. There’s nothing more disheartening for the child than to have work returned covered in red ink, when they’ve inevitably tried harder than their peers to produce the work.
  • Only ask a pupil to rewrite a piece of work that is going to be displayed. Rewriting pages for no reason at all is soul destroying as usually much effort will have already been put into the original piece of work.
  • By the end of a school day a dyslexic child is generally more tired than his peers because everything requires more thought, tasks take longer and nothing comes easily. More errors are likely to be made. Only set homework that will be of real benefit to the child.
  • In allocating homework and exercises that may be a little different or less demanding, it is important to use tact. Self-esteem is rapidly undermined if a teacher is underlining the differences between those with difficulties and their peers. However, it should also be remembered that far more effort may be needed for a dyslexic child to complete the assignment than for their peers.
  • Set a limit on time spent on homework, as often a dyslexic child will take a lot longer to produce the same work that another child with good literacy skills may produce easily.
  • A dyslexic child’s ability to write down thoughts and ideas will be quite different from the level of information the child can give verbally. For successful integration, the pupil must be able to demonstrate to the teacher that he knows the information and where he is in each subject. Be prepared to accept verbal descriptions as an alternative to written descriptions if appropriate.Alternative ways of recording should be looked at, such as :
    • The use of computers for word processing.
    • Audio tapes for recording lessons that can then be written up at a later stage.
    • Written record of the pupil’s verbal account, or voice activated software can be used.
  • More time should be allocated for completion of work because of the extra time a dyslexic child needs for reading, planning, rewriting and proofreading their work.
  • For a dyslexic child the feeling of being ‘different’ can be acute when faced with the obvious and very important need of ‘specialist’ help for his literacy and possibly mathematical skills. Some specialist methods can be incorporated into the classroom so all children can benefit from them, thus reducing the feeling of ‘difference’.


In order to be able to teach, as far as possible, according to each child’s educational needs, it is essential to see him or her as a whole person, complete with individual strengths and weaknesses.

An understanding of the pupil’s specific difficulties, and how they may affect the student’s classroom performance, can enable the teacher to adopt teaching methods and strategies to help the dyslexic child to be successfully integrated into the classroom environment.

Dyslexics have many strengths: oral skills, comprehension, good visual spatial awareness/artistic abilities. More and more dyslexic children could become talented and gifted members of our schools if we worked not only with their specific areas of difficulty, but also their specific areas of strengths from an early age. To do this we have to let go of outmoded viewpoints that a dyslexic child must first fail, in order to be identified.

These are the children of our future and they have a right to help and support before they develop the dreadful sense of failure which is so insidious.

Class teachers dealing with dyslexic children need to be flexible in their approach, so that they can, as far as possible, find a method that suits the pupil, rather than expecting that all pupils will learn in the same way.

Above all, there must be an understanding from all who teach them, that they may have many talents and skills. Their abilities must not be measured purely on the basis of their difficulties in acquiring literacy skills. Dyslexic children, like all children, thrive on challenges and success.


Citation Information

Hodge, Patricia Lynn. (200) A Dyslexic Child in the Classroom. Davis Dyslexia Association International, www.dyslexia.com

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  • Mauricio

    What is very important in this article is that it gives some excellent teaching steps for classroom teachers to follow in order to be more flexible and reach in a more efficient way students with dyslexia

  • Nadera A

    This is a very useful article with excellent advice.
    I would appreciate if we are all more careful with the language we use. We need to present the child first and then the disability by always saying a child with dyslexia rather than a dyslexic child. They are our children first with many characteristics, talents and abilities and dyslexia is just a condition that needs to be addressed to make it possible for them to read and learn.

    • Abigail Marshall, DDAI webmaster

      Nadera, thank you for your comment –but I don’t agree with your viewpoint. I think that “child with _____” language has exactly the opposite effect of what you intend. It conveys a subtle and insidious message that the child has some sort of undesirable and unfortunate disease.

      No one hesitates to use positive words like gifted, capable, talented, intelligent, smart as direct adjectives, or to use “is” rather than “with” in describing those traits. No one hesitates to call their child an “athlete” or an “artist” or “scholar” — or a “reader.”

      Even neutral adjectives like “tall” or “brown-eyed” are used without hesitation.

      It is only when the adults have a negative view of the trait that the message is conveyed that the so-called “disability” must somehow be separated.

      Dyslexia is only a “disability” because of educational methods and practice that fail to recognize and support the child’s differences.

      We view dyslexia as a gift in part because we are able to provide children and adults with the tools they need to use their strengths to succeed.

      And so we say “dyslexic” — a dyslexic child; the child is dyslexic. And we say “difference” and not “disability” — because like all differences, the neurodiversity that dyslexia represents is something to be respected and learned from. (I don’t hear adults using “with” language to describe cultural, ethnic, or racial differences).

      So that is why I will say dyslexic person or autistic person, and am very proud to call my high achieving son dyslexic. And why I personally avoid prefacing dyslexia with “with” or “has” — because again, it is not a disease but something that we are happy to embrace.

      We do think that it is counter-productive to be overly critical or to castigate word choice. I don’t expect to change your mind. I just hope that you can understand that those of us who deliberately use the language you disapprove of have valid reasons for our choices — and part of that is because we have a much broader view of dyslexia and want to recognize, nourish and cultivate the inherent gifts and talents that go along with the differing academic needs.

      • Sujata P

        Wow I love how you have explained your reasoning and it makes sense too. I have been using the context of not labelling…. thank you for sharing and your validation is refreshing and so helpful. The system has always been the issue and our 16 year old son has not had a great school experience and teachers have not understood enough to help. I have tried to work with the system and even a psycologist report has not helped his journey and at times you feel like giving up. But our children are too important to give up on! your perspective was helpful!

      • Erin

        Thank you! As an autistic adult with a dyslexic/autistic son, I appreciate your reasoning. This is not a disease. It is a different wiring or processing ability.

  • Natasha

    My child is in grade 5 she is having a very difficult with her dyslexia . I have her in a program once a week for 45 minutes but I do not find that enough I find a school is not giving her much help and I was wondering do the teacher in her class have to help her sometimes when she don’t understand stuff . Because I have called the teacher and try to talk to her about it but all she got to say is that my daughter lashes out sometimes and does a lot of colouring she said it don’t seem like she got any interest but I told her well I am worried about her education and I think she needs a little bit more help in the classroom and she said that she can’t spend all her time on her . I never asked her to spend all of her time on my daughter but I expected her to say that she would try to help her a little bit more . Thank you

  • April

    Shouldn’t all English teachers be required to be Special ed teachers so they can understand learning differences like dyslexia & dysgraphia and be capable of teaching all students to read? Seems like that alone could help make a difference. I am dyslexic and I remember being in school many years ago & only my special education teacher was able to teach me. Yet I spent most of my day in general education classes and only my study hall period free period with a special ed teacher I was learning.

  • Patrick S

    Your article helped me a lot. My child is in fourth grade and has difficulty writing, learning, and maintaining what I am teaching. He is also disorganized. He never keeps his things properly. Systematic work is also a cause for concern. This article is useful because now I can change my approach and methods of achieving the goal. Thank you, you helped me a lot.

    • Faith

      I have dislexia in reading and writing and my experience in the New York Nassau school system was horrible I think that in order to teach in schools you need to to get a dagree in learning disability’s and I will do what ever it takes to get that law passed if anyone what’s to help I be up to it

  • Marie

    My 13 year old daughter has been diagnosed with dyslexia in the last two months. After being a perfect student and passing her 11 plus to a selective school she had a terrible second year at secondary school and was on the verge of being expelled , she was tested by the school and found to be dyslexic. She hates being different and her behaviour at school is still very bad . We are at our witts end knowing what to do – any advice would be very welcome

    • Abigail Marshall, DDAI webmaster

      Have you considered a Davis program? As you mention behavior issues as well as recently-diagnosed dyslexia, a Dyslexia Correction program combined with Davis Attention Mastery might give her the tools she needs to succeed.

      You might also want to reconsider whether the current school placement is the source of the problem. If she was doing well before but now is struggling, it could be that she would still flourish in an environment more suited to her learning style.

  • Jessie

    I think my daughter is dyslexic, she is in sixth grade and can’t read and finds it very difficult to spell words. Her intelligence is not bad, but after reading a number of articles on dyslexia i have come to a conclusion that she is dyslexic.
    I live in Zambia were therapy is difficult to get and very little knowledge about it. How best can I help her?
    Will she be able to read and spell.

    Desperate parent

  • Crystal

    yes this little girl has dyslexia and is going to a school that currently is telling her that they can’t help her any longer and she has to transfer to another school because she has dyslexia and I would like to know if that is legal and what roles the school is responsibile for & what the parents can do about it?

    • Abigail Marshall, DDAI webmaster

      The answer to that question depends on where the school is located (what country? what state or province?) and the type of school (public or private).

  • Josephine

    My daughter is 11 years old, and I am wondering if it`s too late for her now to learn to read fluently!

    • Abigail Marshall, DDAI webmaster

      No, it’s not too late at all! I discovered the book, The Gift of Dyslexia, and followed the steps the book outlined with my son when he was age 11. Before then, he struggled terribly — but with the Davis tools he was able to read smoothly and without stumbling right away. It was amazing. Of course he needed more time and practice to work up to comfortably reading material written at his grade level and beyond– but it didn’t take long at all.

  • Anne

    Thankyou, my little girl is in year 3 & she is showing all of the signs of dislexia. I have had her sight and hearing tested by specialists & not one of them has mentioned dyslexia to me, she has started suffering from anxiety in school & low self esteem. I now understand why! I have been doing a lot of work with her at home which is helping but can be frustrating at times, this website is enlightening and will help me with teaching her. Thankyou!

    • Suzy

      Dyslexia is correctly diagnosed by a medical professional. Being weak in reading/spelling does not automatically mean your child is dyslexic. Since my child was recently diagnosed with dyslexia, my biggest relief has been to find out and be told that my child is otherwise of completely normal intelligence compared with her peers. The psychologist explained to me that slow learners are not diagnosed with dyslexia….they are simply slow learners. A dyslexic child has a good memory function, can understand and follow instructions, can give instructions clearly, can feedback information, has good language comprehension skills, has a good vocabulary and is otherwise clever. The missing factor is the inability to read (and in the older child…to spell). It’s worth having your child professionally assessed. What happens after diagnosis is any man’s guess…so many therapies but no cure

      • Abigail Marshall, DDAI webmaster

        It is true that dyslexic children are intelligent and capable, but dyslexia does often go beyond reading difficulties. Because dyslexia stems from a difference in the way the brain processes language, and this can also involve oral language as well as written. Many dyslexic children do have difficulty understanding and following instructions or working with sequential information. It’s also common for dyslexics to sometimes confuse one word for another in their mind, or to be confused about prepositions and words commonly used in giving directions or instructions, such as confusing left and right. It’s important for parents and teachers to be aware that these problems can often be tied to dyslexia, because teachers sometimes mistakenly assume that the child is willfully disobeying or disregarding their instructions.

      • Caitlin

        I think you have been mis informed. Dyslexia can effect many aspects of a child’s learning including memory and many “slow learners” are dyslexic. Your psychologist information is out of date and unhelpful.

  • Josh Almeida

    YES! This article is dead on. I actually just did a talk on my journey growing up dyslexic. It’s no picnic by any means but I believe its actually makes people massively creative and driven if they can learn how to raise above the hardship. If you’re into it, here is the video of my telling me story. https://youtu.be/X6CSrkuZhAU

  • Reena Y

    Your article has been of great help to me. My child is in fourth grade and has difficulty in writing and retaining what I teach. He is disorganiszed also. He never keeps his things properly. Systemized work is also a cause of worry.This article is helpful as now I can change my approach and techniques of getting thing done. Thanks.

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