Authors: Inns, A., Lake, C., Pellegrini, M., & Slavin, R..
Publication: Submitted for Publication 2019
This article reviews research on the outcomes of diverse reading approaches on the
achievement of struggling readers in elementary schools. 61 studies of 48 different programs met rigorous standards. 84% were randomized experiments and 16% quasi-experiments. Outcomes were positive for one-to-one tutoring and were positive but not as large for one-to-small group tutoring. There were no differences in outcomes between teachers and teaching assistants as tutors. Whole-class approaches (mostly cooperative learning) and whole-school approaches incorporating tutoring obtained outcomes for struggling readers as large as those found for one-to-one tutoring, and benefitted many more students. Technology-supported adaptive instruction did not have positive outcomes, however. The article concludes that approaches mixing classroom and school improvements with tutoring for the most at-risk students have the greatest potential for the largest numbers of struggling readers.