Authors: A. M. Gallagher, V. Laxon, E. Armstrong & U. Frith.

Article: Phonological difficulties in high-functioning dyslexics.

Publication: Reading and Writing (Springer). 8, pages499–509 1996 | DOI: 10.1007/BF00577025


Well compensated, high-functioning dyslexics, aged 18 years, whose reading ability had improved so that it was now within one standard deviation of the normal population mean were assessed on a range of phonological tasks. The dyslexics were compared with controls matched for age and academic attainment. A sizeable subgroup performed as well as controls on a word recognition test. However, they performed worse, in terms of accuracy, on nonword reading and spelling, and worse, in terms of speed, on spoonerisms, digit naming and speech rate. These results indicate that, even when word recognition ability has reached normal levels, a specific problem in subsyllabic phonology persists, and is demonstrable both in written and spoken language processing. Despite this specific difficulty, all the dyslexic participants were studying for university entrance exams and were expected to enter tertiary education.

Tagged as: adult dyslexia, compensation, nonword reading, phonological processing, and Rapid automatic naming


Gallagher, A.M., Laxon, V., Armstrong, E. et al. Phonological difficulties in high-functioning dyslexics. Read Writ 8, 499–509 (1996).

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