Research Topic: Nonresponse to Traditional Intervention

Research Shows that 30-50% of struggling readers do not respond well to traditional intervention services, typically based on provision of specialized teaching geared to phonemic awareness and phonetic decoding. The traits of “nonresponders” are highly correlated to common signs of dyslexia. The correlation between poor response rate and dyslexia is so robust that schools are allowed to use a child’s history of non-response as a qualifier for special education services, in lieu of a formal diagnosis of dyslexia.

Research Articles:

Anthony J. Krafnick, Eileen M. Napoliello, D. Lynn Flowers, and Guinevere F. Eden. The Role of Brain Activity in Characterizing Successful Reading Intervention in Children With Dyslexia. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 16: 898661, (2022).

Julian G. Elliott. It’s Time to Be Scientific About Dyslexia. Reading Research Quarterly. First published online: 04 September 2020, (2020).

Aboud, Katherine S., Laura A. Barquero and Laurie E. Cutting.. Prefrontal mediation of the reading network predicts intervention response in dyslexia. Cortex. 101: 96-106, April, (2018).

Isadora Szadokierski, Matthew K. Burns & Jennifer J. McComas | Tanya Eckert. Predicting Intervention Effectiveness From Reading Accuracy and Rate Measures Through the Instructional Hierarchy: Evidence for a Skill-by-Treatment Interaction. School Psychology Review. 46:2, 190-200, (2017).

Van der Kleij, Sanne W; Eliane Segers. Margriet A. Groen,, Ludo Verhoeven. Response to Intervention as a Predictor of Long‐Term Reading Outcomes in Children with Dyslexia. Dyslexia. Volume 23, Issue 3 August 2017 Pages 268-282, (2017).

Sebastián Aravena , Jurgen Tijms, Patrick Snellings, Maurits W. van der Molen. Predicting responsiveness to intervention in dyslexia using dynamic assessment. Learning and Individual Differences. Volume 49, Pages 209-215, (2016).

Barquero, Laura Alley. Predicting Responsiveness to Reading Intervention with fMRI. PhD Dissertation. , (2015).

Hugh W. Catts, Diane Corcoran Nielsen, Mindy Sittner Bridges, Yi Syuan Liu, Daniel E. Bontempo. Early Identification of Reading Disabilities Within an RTI Framework. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 48(3), 281–297., (2015).

Snowling, Margaret J. Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: a contemporary view.. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs. vol. 13 (1): 7-14, January, (2012).

Nicole Davis , Laura Barquero, Donald L Compton, Lynn S Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs, John C Gore, Adam W Anderson. Functional correlates of children's responsiveness to intervention. Developmental neuropsychology. Developmental Neuropsychology. Volume 36- Issue 3, Pages 288-301, (2011).

Torgesen, Joseph K.. Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters.. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice,. 15(1), 55–64, (2010).

Odegard, Timothy N., Jeremiah Ring, Stephanie Smith, John R. Biggan and Jeff Black. Differentiating the neural response to intervention in children with developmental dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia. 58(1):1-14, June, (2008).

Wanzek, Jeanne.,& Vaughn, Sharon. Response to Varying Amounts of Time in Reading Intervention for Students With Low Response to Intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Volume: 41 issue: 2, page(s): 126-142, (2008).

Al Otaiba, Stephanie, and Douglas Fuchs. Who Are the Young Children for Whom Best Practices in Reading Are Ineffective?: An Experimental and Longitudinal Study. Journal of Learning Disabilities. vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 414–431, September, (2006).

Hatcher PJ, Hulme C, Miles JN, Carroll JM, Hatcher J, Gibbs S, Smith G, Bowyer-Crane C, Snowling MJ.. Efficacy of small group reading intervention for beginning readers with reading-delay: a randomised controlled trial.. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 47(8):820-7, (2006).

Al Otaiba, Stephanie., & Fuchs, Douglas. Characteristics of children who are unresponsive to early literacy intervention: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special Education. 23(5), 300–316, (2002).

Torgesen, Joseph K.; Richard K. Wagner & Carol A. Rashotte. Prevention and Remediation of Severe Reading Disabilities: Keeping the End In Mind. Scientific Studies of Reading. 1:3, 217-234, (1997).

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