Research Topic: Nonresponse to Traditional Intervention

Research Shows that 30-50% of struggling readers do not respond well to traditional intervention services, typically based on provision of specialized teaching geared to phonemic awareness and phonetic decoding. The traits of “nonresponders” are highly correlated to common signs of dyslexia. The correlation between poor response rate and dyslexia is so robust that schools are allowed to use a child’s history of non-response as a qualifier for special education services, in lieu of a formal diagnosis of dyslexia.

Research Articles:

Julian G. Elliott. It’s Time to Be Scientific About Dyslexia. Reading Research Quarterly. First published online: 04 September 2020, 2020.

Aboud, Katherine S., Laura A. Barquero and Laurie E. Cutting.. Prefrontal mediation of the reading network predicts intervention response in dyslexia. Cortex. 101: 96-106, April, 2018.

Van der Kleij, Sanne W; Eliane Segers. Margriet A. Groen,, Ludo Verhoeven. Response to Intervention as a Predictor of Long‐Term Reading Outcomes in Children with Dyslexia. Dyslexia. Volume 23, Issue 3 August 2017 Pages 268-282, 2017.

Hugh W. Catts, Diane Corcoran Nielsen, Mindy Sittner Bridges, Yi Syuan Liu, Daniel E. Bontempo. Early Identification of Reading Disabilities Within an RTI Framework. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 48(3), 281–297., 2015.

Snowling, Margaret J. Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: a contemporary view.. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs. vol. 13 (1): 7-14, January, 2012.

Torgesen, Joseph K.. Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters.. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice,. 15(1), 55–64, 2010.

Odegard, Timothy N., Jeremiah Ring, Stephanie Smith, John R. Biggan and Jeff Black. Differentiating the neural response to intervention in children with developmental dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia. 58(1):1-14, June, 2008.

Wanzek, Jeanne.,& Vaughn, Sharon. Response to Varying Amounts of Time in Reading Intervention for Students With Low Response to Intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Volume: 41 issue: 2, page(s): 126-142, 2008.

Al Otaiba, Stephanie, and Douglas Fuchs. Who Are the Young Children for Whom Best Practices in Reading Are Ineffective?: An Experimental and Longitudinal Study. Journal of Learning Disabilities. vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 414–431, September, 2006.

Hatcher PJ, Hulme C, Miles JN, Carroll JM, Hatcher J, Gibbs S, Smith G, Bowyer-Crane C, Snowling MJ.. Efficacy of small group reading intervention for beginning readers with reading-delay: a randomised controlled trial.. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 47(8):820-7, 2006.

Al Otaiba, Stephanie., & Fuchs, Douglas. Characteristics of children who are unresponsive to early literacy intervention: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special Education. 23(5), 300–316, 2002.

Torgesen, Joseph K.; Richard K. Wagner & Carol A. Rashotte. Prevention and Remediation of Severe Reading Disabilities: Keeping the End In Mind. Scientific Studies of Reading. 1:3, 217-234, 1997.


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