Authors: Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., & Stanovich, K. E..

Article: Converging evidence for the concept of orthographic processing..

Publication: Reading and Writing (Springer). 14(5-6), 549–568. 2001 | DOI: 10.1023/A:1011100226798

[Full Text]


Six different measures of orthographic processing (3 different letter string choice tasks, 2 orthographic choice tasks, and a homophone choice task) were administered to 39 children (aged 8 yrs 8 mo to 10 yrs 4 mo) who had also been administered the word recognition subtest of the Metropolitan Achievement Test and a comprehensive battery of tasks assessing phonological processing skill (4 measures of phonological sensitivity, nonword repetition, and pseudoword reading). The 6 orthographic tasks displayed moderate convergence—forming 1 reasonably coherent factor. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that a composite measure of orthographic processing skill predicted variance in word recognition after variance accounted for by the phonological processing measures had been partialed out. A measure of print exposure predicted variance in orthographic processing after the variance in phonological processing had been partialed out.


The data provide at least a tentative indication that phonological and
orthographic processing skills are separable components of variance in word
recognition during the beginning stages of reading acquisition. Such a conjecture would be consistent with the suggestion that these two sources of
variance contribute differentially to reading difficulties (



Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2001). Converging evidence for the concept of orthographic processing. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14(5-6), 549–568.

Tagged as: orthographic processing

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